STOCKHOLM/LONDON: An American and two Japanese scientists won the 2014 Nobel Prize for Physics Tuesday for inventing a new energy-efficient and environment-friendly light source, leading to the creation of modern LED light bulbs.
Isamu Akasaki and Hiroshi Amano of Japan and Japanese-born U.S. citizen Shuji Nakamura won the prize for developing the blue light-emitting diode – the missing piece that now allows manufacturers to produce white-light lamps.
The arrival of such lamps is changing the way homes and workplaces are lit, offering a longer-lasting and more efficient alternative to the incandescent bulbs pioneered by Joseph Swan and Thomas Edison at the end of the 19th century.
“Red and green LEDs have been around for a long time but blue was really missing. Thanks to the blue LED we now can get white light sources which have very high energy efficiency and very long lifetime,” Per Delsing, a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, said.
The award is a notable example of a practical discovery winning the prize, in contrast to last year when the physics prize went to scientists who predicted the existence of the Higgs boson particle that explains how elementary matter attained the mass to form stars and planets.
“Incandescent light bulbs lit the 20th century; the 21st century will be lit by LED lamps,” the academy said in a statement awarding the 8 million Swedish crown ($1.1 million) prize.
Frances Saunders, president of Britain’s Institute of Physics, said the shift offered the potential for huge energy savings. “With 20 percent of the world’s electricity used for lighting, it’s been calculated that optimal use of LED lighting could reduce this to 4 percent. Akasaki, Amano and Nakamura’s research has made this possible and this prize recognizes this contribution.”
Akasaki and Amano are professors at Meijo and Nagoya Universities, respectively, in Japan. Nakamura is an instructor at the University of California.
Contacted by telephone in the middle of the night, Nakamura said of the award: “It’s unbelievable.” In a later statement, he added: “It is very satisfying to see that my dream of LED lighting has become a reality.”
Colin Humphreys, an expert at the University of Cambridge who is working on next-generation LED lighting, said the ability of the three scientists to crack the problem of blue light when others had failed was a tremendous achievement.
“Their invention of efficient blue LEDs has paved the way for the development of bright, cost effective and, importantly, energy efficient white lighting,” he said.
In addition to lighting buildings, LED bulbs are transforming lamps in cars and the technology is also used as a light source in smartphones and computer screens.
LED lamps last 10 times longer than fluorescent bulbs and 100 times longer than traditional incandescent tungsten filament bulbs.